The clearance of drug from the body is subjected to a number of variations. Variables that cause such discrepancies include individual factors, co-administration of drugs, doses, frequency, and duration of drug abuse.
Theoretically, two individuals consuming a same dose of drug will eliminate it at different intervals. This is as a result of following factors.
- Age:The elderly people have a diminished clearance rate as a result of reduced hepatic and renal function, and an overall poor physiologic health of the body.
- Body size and fat content:A larger body size is associated with a faster metabolism in comparison to a smaller body size. Lortab is a hydrophilic compound, which means it doesn’t accumulate in the fat tissues. Moreover, individuals with high-fat content tend to eliminate the drug more quickly.
- Genetics:Some of the individuals have a genetic makeup that facilities the faster metabolism of Lortab. This is due to a set of efficient enzymes that tend to speed-up the rate of metabolism. On the other hand are the poor-metabolizes that require more time to metabolize the drug.
- Glutathione levels:NAPQ1 is a toxic metabolite of Acetaminophen. It gets detoxified by conjugation with Glutathione. So it is speculated that individuals having higher levels of Glutathione can excrete Acetaminophen at faster rates.
- Hepatic and renal functions: These are the two major organs involved in metabolism and excretion of Lortab. Any degree of impairment will affect these processes. People with liver cirrhosis have reported a much-delayed excretion of the drug. Any kidney dysfunction will lead to an accumulation of drug and thus, a slower excretion process.
Co-administration of drug:
There are many drugs that can interfere with the metabolism of Lortab due to same set of enzymes acting on them. Codeine, Amiodarone, Citalopram, Yohimbine, Sertindole, Perphenazine, Paroxetine, Methadone, Fluoxetine, and Delavirdine act as the inhibitors and slow-down the speed of Lortab metabolism. On the other hand, if an inducer medicine is administered, it will augment the rate of hepatic metabolism.
Frequency of use and duration:
The higher frequency and prolonged duration of use lead to a much slower clearance of the drug from the body. It happens due to multiple factors like a heavy concentration of enzymes needed for metabolism and excretion of high amounts of Lortab and its metabolites.