There are many factors that can account for the time duration of elimination of Adderall from the body. It is important to take in notice all these factors before accurately estimating the time interval. Some of the basic factors and their influence on the drug excretion timeline are discussed as follows.
If two individuals take a 20 mg capsule at the same time without having a prior exposure to the drug, the duration for which the drug will stay in their systems will be different based on the following factors.
- Age: It has been found that children can eliminate Adderall from the body at faster rates as compared to adults. The half life gets shortened by one to two hours in children.
- Body Composition:The fat content, muscle mass, weight, and height also determine the duration of drug stay in the body. Adderall is hydrophilic, which means the drug has a propensity for water and will not get accumulated in fat tissues. A high-fat mass with low muscle mass tends to increase the elimination rate of drug. Muscles are associated with more water storage and hence, more conservation of Adderall.
- Co-administered drugs:Adderall can interact with many drugs. It has been found that any MAO inhibitor will prolong the metabolism and delay the process of removal from the body. Sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide also slow down the process whereas acidifying substances can accelerate the excretion of the drug from the body.
- Food Intake: Adderall has a faster absorption on an empty stomach than a stomach filled with high fatty food. The concentration of amphetamine isomer will reach maximum levels in 5-5.5 hours. In the presence of fatty food, the time changes to 7.7-8 hours.
- Gastrointestinal PH and urinary PH: The alkalinity is associated with a slow speed of elimination. A ph above 6 can increase the half-life of drug and allow it to stay for longer durations in the body.
- Genetics: The basic enzyme involved in Adderall metabolism is CYP2D6. Its regulatory functions are determined by CYP26D gene. Some people are rapid CYP2D6 metabolizers and some are poor metabolizers. The timeframe of drug excretion will differ in both the cases.
Drinking more water will increase the urinary flow rate. It is also based on the type of water, alkaline water will slow down the rate and acidic water will augment the rate.
Kidneys are involved in the process of drug elimination through urine. The sub-optimal renal functions can impair this process. It is further based on the degree of malfunctioning of kidneys.
Adderall is metabolized in the liver. All the major enzymatic breakdowns of the drug occur in the liver. Any impairment due to a disease or trauma can affect the rate of metabolism and excretion of the drug from the body.
The high doses of Adderall will consume a significant amount of time in getting metabolized and excreted in comparison to smaller doses.
Chronic users are suspected to Adderall accumulation, which slows down the process of excretion. Moreover, chronic users have developed the tolerance levels so it can be predicted that they are taking higher doses, which further add up to the slow-elimination rate.